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            法国诗人博纳富瓦的晚期诗学:乘“弯曲的船板”出发

            来源:澎湃新闻  | 后商  2019年09月27日16:33

            用散文来谈论诗歌是极其困难的。尽管可以从为数不多聪明的头脑和精彩的论文中获得某种真实感和教义,还是避免不了写出一篇庸俗的文章。对于博纳富瓦这样的诗人尤其如此。同时,诗歌为我们设置了一个逃逸的出口:从自身出发寻找事物的存在的言说。

            博纳富瓦

            博纳富瓦生于1923年的法国图尔。他在中学学习数学,20岁时到巴黎,参与超现实运动,三年后又与它决裂。在这个时期,他在巴黎索邦大学研读哲学,加斯东·巴什拉给予他很多启示。二战后,博纳富瓦回避了当时潮流“介入文学”,转而以“在场”(présence)建构自己的诗歌美学,1953年《论杜弗的动与静》奠定了他的诗坛地位。随后,他也发表一系列诗学论文,《论诗的行动与场所》等,着力构造自己的诗学地图。1981年,他执掌法兰西公学院(le Collège de France)“诗歌功能的比较研究”(études comparées de la fonction poétique)教席。他也翻译了莎士比亚、彼得拉克、莱奥帕尔迪、叶芝等人的诗歌和剧作,并撰写关于诗歌和绘画的散文。

            《弯曲的船板》是诗人晚期作品(并非最后一本)。在近百年的研究中,对于“晚期”的指认是一个值得一说的事件,先是爱德华·赛义德出版《论晚期风格》,再是哈罗德·布鲁姆编辑《直到我停止歌唱:最后的诗选集》(Till I End My Song: A Gathering of Last Poems)。何以晚期变得如此重要?概因为晚期是创作生命中的某种奇观,部分文人以凋零的姿态面对,但强劲的诗人则在加剧的有限性和肉身消磨中学习生长。他们给予那些虚假的现代景观以最强有力的反击和轻蔑。

            晚期博纳富瓦探索了新的主题:回忆、希望、生命的再生,这些主题在诗人过往的作品中也是题中要义,但这一次,他把优先权授予了这些和善的客体。他进入到一种梦幻般的语调里,在其中,语言成为一种补充,并且语言自身也携带着更多的原始、粗糙、破碎?!跋闫?,颜色,味道,/同样的梦,/而鸽子另在别处/在咕咕声里?!毙闯稣饧感械牟┠筛煌?,像极了博尔赫斯,但于诗人而言,记忆不是博尔赫斯意义上的旋涡,而是博纳富瓦意义上的指涉,一条道路,渐行渐光明的道路。

            从《杜弗的动与静》到《在门槛的圈套中》再到《弯曲的船板》,代表着一条从声音,到行动,再到记忆的进路。博纳富瓦一生的诗作都在生产一种介于独白和对话之间、呼吁和神启之间的语言,它有很强的戏剧面向,每每向读者召唤和致意,但在这个“戏剧地质层”之上,其诗歌又呈现不同的地貌?!抖鸥サ亩刖病肺谱派舳⑸?,这个声音可以看作是杜弗所分娩的,又可以视为与杜弗并存?!八媸鄙?,杜弗,/随时死”一句在“说”之中注入一种光与暗、死与生的角力,在杜弗之生中“说”,在杜弗之死中“说”。与“徒然的加冕礼”的话语不同,“说”是一种诗性之光,它“最终把自己变成风和黑夜?!薄对诿偶鞯娜μ字小繁硐至说哚鹊男卸?,其中是一个催眠和唤醒后的杜弗。从声音到行动,是从沼泽到山陵的变化,也是从母体到父体的变化?!白不?,/永远撞击?!痹诳吞逯?,杜弗的纠缠不再是以命名的方式呈现,而是直接地和客体发生搏斗。所谓“门槛”并不纯然是语言,它同时也是“词语之风”,是“水中露出一张脸”的露出动作,是在一切之中的摆渡人。

            《弯曲的船板》呈现出杜弗的视觉化形象,这样的视觉化既是声音的视觉化,也是行动的视觉化,它让早期的高亢和决绝变得曼妙、温和,冻僵得像雾一样。诗集中常有的一个形象是少儿时代杜弗,他对于客体的处理是跨越性的动作,而不再是辨认性的动作,而诗句中所称的“回忆”仿佛是少年杜弗对于未来的希望和期许。正是以未来之貌出现的回忆让戏剧声音过渡成为影像。晚年的博纳富瓦也表现出对于人间的关怀和接纳,房子建筑在他的诗句之上,取沼泽和山陵而代之,这种关怀和接纳并非具有某种事态的反面,反而是他暮年衰老的肉身上的某种生长:在崭新的慢调背后是更深的诗。

            先绕开诗歌文本,看一看博纳富瓦的诗歌观念。1972年博纳富瓦应比利时皇家学士院之邀发表演讲,在演讲的结尾他说,“我们简单地说吧:一要有梦想,梦想像我方才谈过的那样去写作;二要有意愿,愿意从某种语言的羁绊中将词语解放出来;三要有希望,希望从话语的深处找到那些原初时期即已诞生的、尚存的和已消亡的词汇与句法?!率瞪?,诗早在铁器时代即已具有了自己的创作规律,眼下的当务之急,或许更应当去理解这些规律,而不是提出什么新的纲领?!?/p>

            他远没有同辈诗人保罗·策兰那样残暴和幽暗,他是质朴的、温和的乃至中庸的。但两者同时也分享了一些相似之处,在那篇《论策兰》里,他毫无保留地赞赏了这位离散者,“对于那条河而言,只要某个像这一死亡一样的行动使它变得更加宽广,使它能聚集起一切场所内的生活尝试、一切求索中的思维、一切希望和一切回忆,作为真实的虚空的这条河便能涌动起来……”他相信策兰的死亡对于他的诗歌是一次伟大的完成。在回答《巴黎书评》的采访中,他再次声明诗歌能够将死亡扭转成积极事件。同时,他说,“诗歌让这个世界变得更致密了,它的一致性也变得更易察觉,我们会感到整体中的更多部分,在一瞬间里的永恒?!?/p>

            《扔石头》无疑是这句话的实践。这篇散文诗几次复写了“扔石头”这个动作,先是写在溪谷里投石头,再写夜里闪光的石头,再写我们将石头播散在深渊里,最后写手流血、但我们抓得更紧、并且发出笑声来?!叭邮贰彼布涔傻揭恢衷⒀?,在寓言里,人们受尽剥夺、创痛,但人们对即将到来的一切、对建筑生命饱含希望。

            面对先辈们、同时代作家群体的对于尘世生活的解构(据他说,马拉美也是如此),博纳富瓦希望回避这一异化。他也批判现代诗学中的唯我论,据让·斯塔罗宾斯基对他的诗学做出的解释,“不是自我,而是世界应该赎罪,或者更确切地说,如果世界和自我在一起,自我才能够赎罪?!辈┠筛煌咄砥谑У闹种智阆?,在他早期和超现实主义分道扬镳之时就已经清晰反映。正如秦三澍所论述的那样,“他认为灵知主义-超现实主义的缺陷和误区在于将注意力放置在后-象征主义的理念化立场上,而忽略了现实的‘鸟’与‘石头’;他们遗忘了人之有限性境况的界限,却满足于接纳那些漂浮于‘自动写作’岸滩上的无意识的残余物?!笔撕粲跷颐谴永寺饕逡跤袄镒叱隼?,从自我表现中撤出来,去真正理解他人。

            他的诗歌与其观念一脉相承。在《在词语的圈套中》一诗中,博纳富瓦虚构了一次漫游,这既是精神的漫游,又是历史的漫游,更是生命的漫游?!拔颐鞘潜掣鹤陨碇亓康拇?,/满载着封闭的事物……/也许能忘掉海面所有的岛屿,/唯有一颗星愈发清晰?!蔽颐墙允前诙扇?。我们在这里和别处的世界之间,在生与死的双重性之间。他在《在门槛的圈套中》一书中写道,“我是摆渡者,/我是穿越一切的一切之船,/我是太阳,/我在石丛中停步在世界的顶端?!闭獠辉偈抢寺饕宓淖晕野胃?,而是基于存在的对于自我的确认和允诺。

            他期待诗歌能重新迎回本体论的诗神,期待诗歌能够保持着惊奇赢得其始源的真正面目,期待诗歌能够把物和世界承担起来,纳入由土地明确担保的统一体中。越到死亡的当口,诗人对于希望的嘱托就越郑重、越饱和,在《当下此刻》一诗的第三节最后,他写道,“遗赠给我们不在绝望中死亡的可能?!?/p>

            “诗正在经历蜕变,从结果到可能,从回忆到等待,从荒陌的空间到缓慢的进展,再到希望?!率瞪?,假如我们不能抵达那个真实的场所,我们又能指望什么呢?”博纳富瓦如是说。

            参考资料:

            冯婧,《博纳富瓦:不被纳入到任何一个主义里的“不倒翁”》

            陈力川,《博纳富瓦:为万事万物重新命名》

            哈罗德·布鲁姆,陆毅栋,《直到我停止歌唱:最后的诗选集》(Till I End My Song: A Gathering of Last Poems)序言

            秦三澍,《〈弯曲的船板〉:在词语的童年测听希望——晚期博纳富瓦及其“在场”诗学》,自《弯曲的船板》

            让-吕克·南希,白轻,《在贫困的时代,诗人何为?——关于博纳富瓦的诗歌》

            让·斯塔罗宾斯基,《诗,在两个世界之间》,自《博纳富瓦诗选》

            伊夫·博纳富瓦,刘楠祺,《论诗的作用》

            伊夫·博纳富瓦,刘楠祺,《论诗的行动与场所》

            伊夫·博纳富瓦,秦三澍,《弯曲的船板》

            伊夫·博纳富瓦,树才,郭宏安,《杜弗的动与静——伊夫·博纳富瓦诗集》

            伊夫·博纳富瓦,树才,郭宏安,《博纳富瓦诗选》

            伊夫·博纳富瓦,葛雷,《语言不再是初始时代的语言》,自《面对面》

            John T. Naughton,The Notion of Presence in the Poetics of Yves Bonnefoy

            Michael Bishop,Presence and Image: The Poetics of Yves Bonnefoy

            Shusha Guppy,Yves Bonnefoy,The Art of Poetry No.69, The Paris Review

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