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            中国作家协会主管

            小神:网络文学创作需要依托现实

            来源:中国青年作家报 | 吴鸿瑶  2019年09月29日11:11

            网络文学作家只是小神的众多身份之一,他的身份还有公益摄影协会副会长、杭州牧文文化传媒工作室创始人等。工作之余,小神在文学创作这条路上已经走了近十年。他的笔下有隐居渔村的国宝修复高手,有寻根问源的神秘传说,有一代帝王的峥嵘岁月,还有非文字文明的宏大史诗……但不论在他什么类型题材的作品中,都展现出对现实社会的关注和思考,以及对孝道和良知的认识和发扬。2019年,他的小说《无字江山》被选为中国作协网络中心重点扶持作品。

            宁可写得慢一点,也一定要尽最大的努力把它写好

            创作《无字江山》的想法萌生自2018年9月,小神在图书馆里偶然看到一本关于远古蛮荒时代的书。查阅资料后,他遗憾地发现关于非文字文明时期只有考古学、社会学、神话学这类书籍,普通读者对于口口相传、结绳记事时代了解十分欠缺。

            “我既然是一名作家,为什么不能创作一部描写非文字文明大时代的小说,填补这方面的空白呢?”于是他立刻拿起笔来,在日记本上写下了第一章:失踪的教授。

            小神坦言,拥有一个惊艳的创作灵感不太难,难的是把它付诸实践。书写非文字文明的时代需要有扎实可靠的史料作支撑,工作之余,小神一有机会就会往各大博物馆跑,到处寻访第一手考古资料,跟着考古学教授去考古现场,与人类学家讨论人类起源,同神话学家聊远古那些神秘的人和事,还跑进深山里听小村落的老爷爷、老奶奶讲故事。为了做实案头工作,他还拜访社会学家、动植物学家、非遗传承人、民间艺人、当地居民……单是写作之前的人物小传和大纲,小神就写了两个多月,整理出超过8万字的10个文档。

            写作时,小神通?;峤约旱弊龉适碌闹魅斯?,进行沉浸代入式创作?!暗弊髡吒约罕氏碌娜宋锬芄缓隙坏氖焙?,才能够创造出一个有趣的、深刻的故事?!毙∩袢缡撬?。

            《无字江山》的主人公唐简是一位双耳失聪的考古专业学生,为了使作品更加真实细腻,小神在写作时会戴上降噪耳机,给自己模拟一个绝对安静的环境,仿佛自己就是一个双耳失聪的人。在考古工地考察时,他也会有意识地戴上降噪耳机去清理,体验主人公的无声世界,以避免文章中出现逻辑漏洞。

            他甚至把自己收快递时的姓名也改成了唐简,收件时听别人叫自己唐简,他就会觉得自己与唐简的灵魂更加贴近和融合。

            从写这本书的第一个字开始,小神就给自己定了规矩:每隔一段时间都要重读,不管在网站上传了多少次,只要有不好的地方就一定要改。他说:“我自己重新读自己写的文字都不能让我自己一下子被打动、被带入,我认为是不合格的。我不愿意把这样的文字变成铅字?!?/p>

            到现在,还未完结的《无字江山》已经修改到第七个版本,废稿已经累积了40万余字。小神认为自己的写作风格就是传统作家,但同时也会借鉴一些网络文学创作的技巧,他也从来不会用一个网络作者的得失和写作方式来衡量自己,“我宁可写得慢一点,也一定要尽最大的努力把它写好?!?/p>

            读了《人生》,才第一次体会到了“用灵魂去写作”的含义

            小神回忆,大学时读了路遥的《人生》,他才第一次体会到了“用灵魂去写作”的含义。后来,他又向同学借来一套《平凡的世界》,一口气读了七遍,这才算“过瘾”。

            小神查阅资料时发现,在《平凡的世界》创作之初,路遥就和弟弟王天乐绘制了小说的地貌草图,从清涧县石咀驿镇王家堡村,一直沿线绘制到西安钟楼,把这一线的山川河流、机场公路、重要建筑等全部描绘出来。路遥曾解释说:“第一步工作很重要,因为所有的人物都要反复在这一地带走动,如果你不熟悉地形,人物一旦走动起来,作家的描写就十分困难?!?/p>

            也正是路遥对于写作的这份认真,深深打动了小神。为了感受主人公孙少平在雨天里吃黑馒头的心情,小神还用大学期间攒下来的钱,跑到延安的窑洞里住了两天,“我感觉离孙少平更近了”。

            相较于同龄的青年作家,小神有着更加丰富的生活阅历,这也得益于他的摄影爱好。他直言:“相机是我的另一双眼睛?!?/p>

            小神回忆,在黑白胶片机的年代,他就一手拿面包,一手拿地图,背着双肩背包,踏遍了云南景洪,宁夏固原,甘肃天水,新疆塔里木,青海的青海湖……没钱了就在路边给人画像或者拍照赚钱,晚上时常露宿在公园里,甚至大街上?!爸挥械蹦阏嬲叱鋈ブ?,你才会发现外面的世界和你想象的世界是完全不一样的?!?/p>

            工作之余,小神依旧在公益摄影中不断积累着生命的体验。凌晨三点起床,在漆黑夜色中去拍同样早起的环卫工人;周末和年节去孤儿院给孩子们上课,带他们踏青,给他们拍照,教他们摄影;深入到偏远的老旧矿区去拍摄尘肺病人专题……在这个过程中,他看到了不同的风土人情,也积累起大量的写作素材。

            小神将摄影旅行的许多体验投入文学创作中,多年的摄影习惯也让他的作品更有画面感和生命力。

            “好的照片是有灵魂的,它会讲故事?!泵孔叩揭桓龅胤?,他都习惯用文字搭配照片记日记。如今,小神在写作起笔之前,脑海里会自动浮现一个个鲜活的场景,如同一幅幅照片。

            不论写什么题材,都会在作品中体现孝道和正义感

            在玄幻、修仙、都市等“爆款”网文火热的当下,喜欢着笔于国学、历史和现实题材的小神成为了一位“非典型”的网文作家,他说,这源于自己从小那一份“风声雨声读书声”的家国情怀。

            小神从小就颇有些文青气质,在同学们打台球,看录像的时候,他却长时间泡在图书馆看书。那时,喜欢读中国历代散文选、喜欢背四书五经的小神在同学眼中显得有些另类,但他并不在意?!爸泄澄幕懒?,文言文虽只寥寥数笔,却有万千气象?!?/p>

            “不论我写什么题材,都会在作品中体现孝道和正义感,这是四书五经中的精华,值得我们去传承和发扬?!毙∩窠樯?,《无字江山》中,唐简的母亲是一位农村妇女,她通过自学哑手语,教会了双耳失聪的儿子说话、识字,母亲在给儿子安装人工耳蜗的路上失踪,别人都说母亲已经去世了,而唐简却一直在寻找母亲,接下来才有了后面的故事。

            文学评论家白烨表示:“《无字江山》的写作是无可替代的,它的核心是在探讨中华文明的源流,它把考古和科考、寻根与寻母巧妙融合起来,需要有很多非常扎实、非??煽康氖妨虾涂脊?、历史知识的支撑,没有特殊情趣和造诣是写不出来的?!?/p>

            谈及文学与现实之间的关系,小神认为,文学要依托于现实,只有想象力如同空中楼阁,好的文学必须有自觉性,有良知,实现现实性和文学性的统一,而想要持续输出好的作品,必须要有丰富的生活经历作为依托。

            小神认为,目前现实题材网文其实在网络读者中的认可度并不高,但现实题材的读者忠诚度和阅读黏性非常高,同时付费比例也几乎是所有类别之中最高的。小神的很多现实性作品也引起了读者的共鸣?!缎鹿蟆芬皇榻彩鲆桓鐾艘厶刂直墓适?,有些大学生读者在论坛里告诉小神,就是看了这本书决定报考公务员去相对艰苦的地方工作,还有不少在职的企事业单位的中年读者留言纠正书中的错误,一起探讨人性与正义。

            他介绍,“随着网络文学的发展,今后成长、成熟的不光是网文作者,同时还有以百万千万计的网文读者,到最后,线上和线下读者会融合到一起的?!彼?。

            圆桌谈

            @中国作协网络文学中心主任何弘:《无字江山》这个题材很好,从校园考古的角度介入,好处在于把历史、文化、现实紧密地连接在一起,把写作的时间和空间一下子打开了,不论从时间的描写还是空间的转换,都提供了广阔的空间。

            @中国作协网络文学研究院副院长肖惊鸿:文字文明之前的文明要靠文学与科学的想象建构,编织出具有顺应人类文明发展历程的故事,这无疑是一个巨大的挑战,也是吸引我持续关注的焦点。

            @中国社会科学院文学所研究员陈定家:我很认同《无字江山》是无可替代的。小说作为一门艺术,作者在创作中要把很多的知识点转化成有趣的表达,也要强调小说的艺术性,注重内在的逻辑性。

            @网友Jeter99:第一次看这样的书,不是新奇,而是打开了另一个文明世界的大门,不自觉地被吸引。

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