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            中国作家协会主管

            冯文炳何以“废名”

            来源:人民政协报 | 冯忠方  2019年09月29日07:19

            中国现代文坛著名作家、在文学史上被视为“京派文学”鼻祖的冯文炳,是以笔名“废名”闻名于世的。

            早在20世纪20年代初期,冯文炳就开始从事文学创作,曾在鲁迅领导的《语丝》杂志上发表作品。他的作品多写家乡的农村生活,地方色彩较浓,语言简练,风格淡雅,于平淡中寄寓哀愁。当时在报刊上发表文章或出书,均署本名。直到1926年7月26日他在《语丝》周刊第84期发表小说《无题之三》(系长篇小说《桥》的一章)时,他才突然废掉本名,第一次署用笔名“废名”。

            冯文炳,这个名字又亲切又寻常。然而,他为何要给自己起“废名”这样一个古怪的笔名呢?将近一年之后,即1927年4月23日,他在《语丝》周刊第128期上发表了一组日记,题为《忘记了的日记》,所记时间为1926年6月1日至6月14日。在其6月10日的日记中有一段话交代了使用这一笔名的缘起:“从昨日起,我不要我那名字,起一个名字,就叫“废名”。我在这四年以内,真是蜕了不少的壳,最近一年尤其蜕得古怪,我把昨天当个纪念日子罢?!庇纱丝梢酝浦?,“废名”这个笔名是1926年6月9日起的。此前四年内(1922年至1926年),作家在思想和创作上的确发生过不少的变化(“蜕了不少的壳”)。

            以后,冯文炳凡是发表文章和出书,都署用这个笔名。他以这个笔名出版了《竹林的故事》《桃园》《桥》《枣》《莫须有先生传》等足以代表个人风格的短篇小说集和长篇小说。

            新中国成立后,冯文炳又把“废名”这个用了23年之久的笔名废了,凡发表文章和出版书籍,都署本名冯文炳。

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