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            “废汉字”公案及后来

            来源:文汇报 | 刘火  2019年09月29日07:25

            被认为是“废汉字”公案的始作俑者钱玄同

            废汉字,是100年前新文化运动最重要的内容之一。

            废汉字,今天多认为肇事者为钱玄同,事出钱文《中国今后之文字问题》。钱文载于1918年4月《新青年》第四卷第四期。其实,废汉字一说最先源于同盟会元老吴稚辉。钱玄同1917年6月(《新青年》1917年6月第三卷第四期)致陈独秀信时说“昔年吴稚辉先生著论,谓中国文字艰深,当舍弃之,而用世界语”;钱又在《中国今后之文字问题》里,引了吴在《新世纪》第四十号上的文章,吴文说“中国文字,迟早必废”?!缎率兰汀匪氖懦霭嬗?918年3月。当然,几个月前后,时间上并无多大差别。但就废汉字的立论与主张,钱玄同的《中国今后之文字问题》比吴文更为详尽。因此《新青年》的这一期,具有巨大影响力。所以将废汉字一说的“功”或“过”,理所当然地算在了钱玄同身上。

            《中国今后之文字问题》中废汉字依据的是(或响应)陈独秀推翻孔学、改革伦理的新思想,钱文认为,“欲废孔学,不可不先废汉文?!鼻囊怀?,在知识界、文化界乃至政界,立即引起掀然大波?!缎虑嗄辍吠食露佬?、胡适、刘半农、鲁迅等坚定地支持钱文,并与反对者展开论战。

            在那一场惊世骇俗、惊天动地的反对旧文化树立新文化的启蒙运动中,矫枉过正在所难免。即便今天,钱、陈、鲁等的预言,虽然没有出现(可能永远也不会实现),但就废汉字主张本身来看,依然可以看到它的历史功绩。废汉字,除了在反旧伦理、旧礼教、旧传统之外,还在汉字的简化和拼音注音两个方面取得了汉字历史上的重要进步。前者的标识是:钱玄同1935年抱病为中华民国政府制定的简化字方案(此案,由于戴季陶等人的坚决反对,未能出笼),后来成了中华人民共和国1955年简化字方案的蓝本;后者的标识是:周有光等制定了今天广为使用且便捷的汉语拼音方案。

            事实上,历史上总有些事纠结纠缠。即便钱玄同,在废汉字上,也并非那般的决绝。仅隔四个月,即在1918年4月钱发表了《中国今后之文字问题》后的1918年8月,钱对于废汉字有了一种新说法:“至于玄同虽主张废灭汉字,然汉字一日未灭,即一日不可不改良?!保ā肚鹬炀┤魏桷痢罚┣恼庖恍拚?,我们可以看到,针对汉字的废、立、新的基本观点,其出发点就是打倒旧礼教。从这一角度上观察,汉字所承载的中国文化和中华文明,急需要的是“改良”。改良的过程,或许是一个漫长而又艰辛的过程,但它必须前行。而在这一过程中,有一件趣事值得一提。不仅因为它的主角是两位名流陈寅恪与刘文典,而且它与汉字直接相关。这就是著名的“对‘对子’”事件。

            1932年夏天,时任清华大学中文系主任的刘文典,请陈寅恪代拟1932年秋的新生入学考试国文题。陈虽即往北戴河休养,却欣然应允。国文题为《梦游清华园记》,陈注“曾游清华园者可以写实,未游清华园者可以想像”(原文稿即如此)。在此基础上,陈专门出了一道“对子”题,题目为“孙行者”,并注“因苏东坡诗有‘前生恐是卢行者,后学过呼韩退之’”(陈寅恪《金明馆丛稿二编》)?!冻乱〖?书信集》里《与刘文典论国文试题书》专门谈及此事。

            为什么要以“对子”来考报考中文系的考生呢?

            陈寅恪为此列出甲、乙、丙、丁四条理由:一、测试虚实字及其应用;二、测试能否分别字音的平仄;三、测试读书之多少及语藏之贫富;四、测试思想条理。前两条便属于汉字文本之事。虚字(词)是汉语(字)有别于拉丁字母语系最重要的区别之一,而且虚字之多、虚字的词义之丰、虚字的使用的歧义之繁,恐是当今世界语言中最奇特的现象(1982年商务印书馆出版的《现代汉语虚词例释》就开出了790条虚词)。这一现象,让汉语表达的丰富和多义成为汉语的重要特征之一(或者说,这也是钱玄同们要废汉字的原因之一);同时也是对使用汉语的国人对其汉语及其汉文化的理解能力的标识之一。三、四两条是讲汉语经典的阅读广度和认知深度,以及融会贯通能力表达的重要性。从汉魏晋以降的赋及骈文,到唐的近体诗,汉字于此四条,不仅仅成就了汉语独特的表达,而且也让这种方式达到汉语艺术上的高峰或顶峰(这也许也是钱玄同们要反对的痼疾之一)。

            为什么与钱、陈、胡、鲁废汉字等新文化诸君同样学贯中西的陈寅恪,会如此推崇对“对子”一事?陈寅恪认为,在中国语文文法未成立(刘案,陈寅恪认为中国第一部汉语文法《马氏文通》将英文文法硬套汉语,先天就不成立。陈为此讥讽《马氏文通》“文通,文通,何其不通如是耶”)之前,“似无过于对子这一方法”可检验考生的“国文程度”。陈寅恪认为,于此,应有一种历史观。那就是,于现存的使用了3000多年的汉字及其汉语文法来说,不能“认贼作父”,即不能随意用他种语言或他种语言文法替代汉语汉字和汉语文法。如果这样,就会“自乱其宗统也”。显然,这是对废汉字事隔15年后的??辗穸?。

            1918年到1932年,时间仅过去15年,汉字不仅没有被废,而且以另外一种方式得到强化。这是对新文化的反动吗?显然不是,在陈寅恪看来,出对子是“与华夏民族语言文学之特性有密切关系”所至,同时在陈寅恪看来,这也是“吾辈理想中之完善方法”。什么是“吾辈理想中之完善方法”?那就是通过对对子,达到对对子者的“思想必通贯而有条理”。这正是汉语使用者所需达到的最高境界!说到底,钱玄同们的废汉字的目的就是要改良旧中国的旧文化和旧伦理,就是希望通过汉字的改良来实现大众的启蒙。于此一点,新文化的先躯们矢志不渝。1935年12月,蔡元培、鲁迅、郭沫若、茅盾等688人提出《我们对于推行新文字的意见》指出:“中国已经到了生死关头,我们必须教育大众,组织起来解决困难。但这教育大众的工作,开始就遇着一个绝大难关。这个难关就是方块汉字,方块汉字难认、难识、难学?!毕M恢中挛淖帧笆顾晌平笾诤兔褡褰夥旁硕闹匾ぞ摺?。

            末了,说一说这场对对子的旷世考试的结局。在对“孙行者”的对子中,据说“惟冯友兰君一人能通解者”。为什么冯友兰君能通解?陈寅恪指出“盖冯君熟研西洋哲学”(陈寅恪1965年语)??芍?,于陈寅恪来看,打通中西,才是我们前行的途经和认知的平台。拿陈寅恪的话讲,通过对对子,让使用汉语者能够“具正反合之三阶段”(陈寅恪1932年语),从而获得新知。这与钱、鲁等新文化先贤们打倒旧文化建设新文化,不是殊途同归、异曲同工吗?

            据说,“孙行者”对得最好的那支对是“胡适之”。

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