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            中国作家协会主管

            魏晋时代何以推崇“英雄”

            来源:中华读书报 | 骆玉明  2019年09月29日12:29

            2000年应赵逵夫先生之召,赴兰州西北师大,参加赵先生门下博士生的论文答辩,读到刘志伟兄的《“英雄”文化与魏晋文学》,感觉眼界高远,气象宏阔。在兰州数日间,得与志伟亲近,说古今书、人间事,略识其性情,可谓浑朴而慷慨,仿佛其故乡陇上之土厚云高。

            志伟的论文设计,格局很大,他对自己的要求也高,短时间无法全部完成,答辩时提交的仅是计划中的一部分。当时与志伟说及:这一题目值得做深广的开拓,足以成一家之言,对魏晋文学与文化研究当有整体上的推进之力。志伟以为深合其意。别来久远,碌碌于世间,常顾影自哂。忽然接到刘志伟来电并寄来这部书稿,嘱为序,知道他一直都在坚持他的“英雄”事业。

            魏晋是中国历史上继春秋战国之后又一个思想活跃而富于创造力的时代。说到中国古代哲学与艺术(包括绘画、书法、音乐、文学诸领域),一般都认为在这个时代发生了质的改变和飞跃性的发展。因而对魏晋文学的研究,历来多名家关注,成果丰富,难以为继。而这一阶段存世文献数量有限,线索跳脱,又加深了研究的难度。后来者想要在这里有小小的创新与开拓,也并非易事。至于说拈出一个核心概念,从大文化的视野,在整体上给魏晋文学以全新的描述,这就不是一般人所敢想象的了。

            刘志伟要做的就是这样一桩事情。他提出的核心概念是“英雄”;他认为崇尚英雄的文化精神,是魏晋文学内在的生命活力。虽然上世纪三四十年代,汤用彤、贺昌群诸前辈曾就魏晋时代崇尚“英雄”与“名士”的现象做过一些申发,但专门以魏晋“英雄文化”为选题的全面性研究尚属空白,以此为主脉阐释魏晋文学更属创新。

            我在复旦中文系讲《世说新语》,也沿着汤、贺两先生的思路谈“英雄与名士”这一话题,曾经用电子文本检索“英雄”一词在古籍中使用的情况,发现在魏晋以前的文献中这一词汇很少出现,到魏晋时代则被空前广泛地使用。也就是说,“英雄”这个概念在魏晋时代才真正确立,崇尚英雄是魏晋文化的一个重要特征。这应该是中国文化史上一个重要的现象,为什么以前人们没有给予足够的重视呢?

            最初读刘志伟的博士论文时就注意到他在这方面做了很好的研究,而在本书中我们可以看到更为清晰、系统的论述。

            这里有一个问题:当我们用一个汉语固有的词汇去翻译一个西方词汇时,会在这个汉语词汇中引入新的涵义;而由于20世纪以来西方文化处于强势地位,引入的新意常?;嵴诒握飧龃实脑?。茅盾于20世纪20年代末出版的《中国神话研究ABC》中,说到中国“古代史的帝皇,至少禹以前的,都是神话中人物——神及半神的英雄”,这个“英雄”其实就是西方神话学所说的“英雄”,完全不是中国的古典概念。

            刘志伟研究魏晋“英雄文化”与文学,第一项工作就是正本清源,彻底厘清“英雄”这个概念在中西两个文化系统中各自的内涵与演变,以及它们在汉语中交融的过程。这样,才能清楚地还原中国古典的“英雄”概念,从而真正认识到魏晋时代形成“英雄文化”的历史过程和深刻意义,并在此视野下对魏晋文学展开一种新的解读,我们不能不说,这是一项杰出的工作。

            这项工作也在更大的范围内给我们一种启发:20世纪以来,我们的学术界强烈地受到西方文化与学术话语的冲击、影响乃至遮蔽。反思今天的中国学术系统的如何构成,其源头在哪里,我们会发现,它跟古人固有的学术传统是很不一样的。那么要追问:中国的学术传统与西方的学术体系,这两个东西是怎么组合起来的?组合得好不好?我们要深刻地领会和继承本民族固有的学术传统,在这过程中,当然需要努力地学习西方的学术传统,但是不能够被它完全左右。

            说到魏晋的英雄,曹操无疑是一个典范式的人物。以前有一种说法,认为曹操所谓“奸雄”的形象,是小说《三国演义》对历史人物加以歪曲的结果,乃至要为他“平反”。但实际上,作为真实历史人物的曹操究竟是何种面貌暂且不论,《三国演义》描写曹操所使用的材料,大都出于魏晋南朝。而且不仅曹操,司马懿、王敦、桓温之流,都被当世人目为“英雄”,他们也都是曹操式的人物?!妒浪敌掠铩芳乔判圆懿俚钠烙?,是“乱世之英雄,治世之奸贼”,“奸雄”一语,由此而来。但桥玄要表达的,乃是一种赞赏的态度。也就是说,在魏晋时代,人们心目中的英雄,正不妨带有几分“奸恶”。

            这是一个复杂的现象。刘志伟把它放在由崇尚“圣贤”到崇尚“英雄”的历史变化中来理解,给出了合理的解释。他阐述桥玄评曹操之语,认为:在汉末严重的政治社会?;?,以儒家封建纲常伦理为核心的道德价值观念系统趋于崩溃,“圣贤”不再成为整个社会崇尚的对象。凭借“圣贤”思想,以天命、道德等作号召拯世,已是一厢情愿的幻想;桥玄等人以通达眼光看待道德与人才的关系,将才能置于第一位,重才智而轻道德,以为唯有英雄方能拯世。这代表了新的时代条件下,一种新的价值观念的出现,是“英雄”人格形象取代“圣人”形象成为必然趋势的重要思想基础。简而言之,推崇英雄,就是推崇人所具有的创造力量;而这种创造力量的实现,每以突破约制它的道德规范为条件。这样看曹操一类人物,颇觉得意味丰富。

            试图用“英雄”概念从整体上重新阐释魏晋文化与文学,借用一个日语词汇,是“野望”,相当于“奢望”与“雄心”的混合吧,本身也是带英雄气概的。但学术研究需要以艰苦而踏实的工作为基础,徒有意气飞扬是没有结果的。我前面说志伟之为人,如陇上之土厚云高,既有慷慨豪迈的一面,亦有敦厚朴实的一面。表现在做学问上,就是孤诣独往,耐得寂寞,吃得苦。本书中谈论各种问题,就其本愿,大抵皆以穷尽文献之可能为前提,奇思妙想,不肯脱空。有些论题,如《“胡须”作为权力意志异化的象征符号》,初读上去颇有突兀之感,但仔细读下来,却又言之成理。因为作者读书多,又有对史料的敏感和深入解析的能力,方能说得透?!渡惺椤づ谈稀罚骸叭襞┓锪︷?,乃亦有秋?!逼裥檠栽?!

            志伟从博士论文开始,为自己设计了一项宏大的工作,十数年屹屹于此,有今日之成就,作为老朋友,我很为他高兴。但我们这一行的人,凡做事认真的,都知道学无止境而力有不逮。志伟要实现他的“野望”,还需要付出许多辛苦。其实,中国古诗人多有以“野望”为题之作,这当然是用汉语本意,大抵写极目原野,大好风光,天地有我,如此多情。

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