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            中国作家协会主管

            张晓楠:作家须心底铺满阳光

            来源:山东商报  | 朱德蒙  2019年09月29日08:45

            “从扑嗒扑嗒/到扑扑嗒嗒/雨点儿,心急地/敲打着玻璃/这些好奇的家伙/一定看到/我的满架子书了/一定是的/它想进屋去/瞧一瞧?,书本里/都藏着些/什么神奇/……”“树叶落了/树叶落了/这是小树,撒下的/一只又一只脚印/不要说小树/不能行走/小树以自己的方式/丈量梦想/……”

            关于文学创作,因体裁和题材的各不相同,有人擅长写小说,有人擅长写诗歌和散文,而有的人则惯于儿童文学创作。山东作家张晓楠,常年专注于儿童诗歌的创作,他的《叶子是树的羽毛》《和田鼠一块回家》等童诗集,受到众多大小读者的喜爱。

            今年,张晓楠作为第五批签约作家签约山东省作家协会。日前,记者专访张晓楠。

            一位写童诗的儿童文学作家

            少年时代,因喜欢阅读与写作,十几岁便开始发表作品,是个地道的校园文学爱好者。所以,写作这件事儿,也就成了自然而然的事情。

            从最初的写小说、写散文、写诗歌,到在多种题材写作的尝试中,渐渐爱上诗歌这种表达方式。张晓楠说,或许因当时年龄较小,表达手法自然也是孩子式、学生式的,又因一些获奖经历又极大激发了自己的创作热情,所以创作风格和创作方式便一直延续了下来,而这一坚持便是20多年。由他创作的《叶子是树的羽毛》《和田鼠一块回家》等诗集,得到众多家长和小朋友的喜爱。

            成长于鲁西南地区一个距离黄河不远的小村庄里,张晓楠告诉记者,这是一个位于黄河文化、齐鲁文化和中原文化的交错地带,这里的风土人情、传统习俗、生活方式等,都具有中国乡村一定的代表性,而这些则深深地影响着自己,“可以说,上世纪七八十年代中国乡村孩子经历的一些事情,我基本上都经历了。这种经历和生活体验,为我以后的创作打上了深深的印记,也奠定了我的创作根基。故乡的那些人、那些事、那些物都成了挥之不去的乡愁,每一次回望,都是一次沉浸、一次回归?!?/p>

            著名儿童文学作家金波曾评价,读张晓楠的这些美丽的诗篇,常常有这样的思考:诗人面对一草一木、一花一叶,对于那些童年的故事和奇思妙想,都可随兴所至,自由抒发,诗人凭借的不仅仅是记忆,更多的还是对于孩子发自内心的关爱,凭借的是全身心活在那个年代?;褂胁豢扇笔У?,就是童心对灵魂的呵护。

            当谈起创作,张晓楠认真表示:“上世纪七八十年代的中国乡村,其物质生活是普遍匮乏的,但那个时代依然给我们带来了快乐,留下了美好记忆。反观现在,生活条件好了,儿童玩具应有尽有、儿童食品应有尽有、儿童读物应有尽有,但现在的孩子们就比我们那时快乐吗?成人也是如此,生活清贫一点不可怕,可怕的是缺乏一种乐观的精神、一颗向上的心?!彼?,任何一位热爱生活,情感细腻,思维灵活的人,都不妨在文学创作上尝试一下,“当然,从事儿童文学创作,还必须心底铺满阳光,有爱心、童心和想象力。因为,儿童文学作品是给孩子心灵打底子的,儿童文学作品必须有洗涤心灵、净化人心的力量。从事儿童文学创作动笔之前,要先明白你所面对的是白纸一样纯净的孩子们,也要想清楚需要在这张纸上留下什么?!?/p>

            诗歌在少儿阅读中更应为孩子喜爱

            2019年8月,首届“童诗现状与发展”研讨会在安徽举办。有专家指出,新中国成立至今,涌现了郭风、圣野、鲁兵、柯岩、金波等几代中国儿童诗人。虽然硕果累累,但中国儿童诗歌一直作为儿童文学的一部分,缺乏独立和清晰的理论支持。因此,把儿童诗歌作为专门的学术单元来建设,是新时代文学的迫切需要。

            对此,张晓楠也指出,作为文学的一个品种,诗歌在少儿阅读中,更应该为孩子们所喜欢、所接受,“它的短小精悍、易读易诵,它的节奏韵律、朗朗上口,对孩子们滋养心灵、陶冶情操、丰富想象力、开启心智模式,以及培养对母语的情感,都有着不可或缺的价值。当下儿童诗歌阅读市场的不乐观,还是认识与引导不足。但好在在倡导全民阅读的今天,童诗的出版和阅读越来越受到关注。如《童诗三百首》等系列儿童诗集的出版;‘中国童诗的现状与发展’研讨会的举办;《世界童诗经典》编撰出版工程也进入实施阶段等。以著名诗人王宜振为首的‘诗坛名家、校园名师’发起的校园诗教活动等,无疑对童诗的阅读推动起到较大的推动作用?!?/p>

            一个有趣的现象,近年,由儿童创作的童诗受到业内外普遍关注。2017年出版的《孩子们的诗》,至今在豆瓣读书上都保持着9.0的高分。

            对于儿童写作童诗,张晓楠则表示,当下,童诗的阅读和推广日益受到重视。出版机构开始尝试推出童诗选题,一些校园组建诗社,甚至设专职老师,开展诗教课堂,“这是令人欣喜的现象,得益于素质教育的倡导和国民综合素养的提高。我们说孩子是天生的诗人,是因为孩子们比成年人离‘诗意’更近,因为他们更完整地拥有童心。孩子们对世界的态度是信任的,信赖亲人们的爱和呵护,衣食无忧,每天只爱‘玩儿’,每天就活在对世界事物的想象中。孩子们最直接,最直率,最纯真。对他们来说,写诗并没有那么复杂,拿起笔写上自己思想的涂鸦,说出自己内心的想法,表达自己想象的场景与画面,这就是诗?!?/p>

            “所以说,孩子们‘写诗’,应该视为童年生活的一部分,与喜欢涂鸦、游戏一样。家长们要通过孩子写诗,更好地了解自己孩子,关注孩子的想法。做好引导,因为孩子们通过写诗可以培养自己的想象力和使用汉语母语的能力?!闭畔钩涞?。当然,作为家长,低下身子,尊重孩子,理解孩子,与他们交朋友的同时,做好引导培育“润物细无声”。

            作家简介

            张晓楠,中国作家协会会员,山东省作家协会主席团委员,山东省作家协会儿童文学委员会常务副主任,山东省作家协会第二批、第五批签约作家,出版诗集《叶子是树的羽毛》《和田鼠一块回家》等十余本。多篇作品入选部编版小学语文课本、全国高等师范院校通用教材、中国语言文学大学教材、北京大学基础教育文库及国内多种权威文学选本。荣获全国优秀儿童文学奖、冰心儿童文学新作奖、冰心儿童图书奖、牡丹文学奖等。系山东省第四批“齐鲁文化英才”。

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